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* These courses are equivalent to pre-university introductory courses and may be counted for credit in the student's record, unless these courses were taken in a preliminary year. They may not be counted toward essay or breadth requirements, or used to meet modular admission requirements unless it is explicitly stated in the Senate-approved outline of the module.
1.0 course not designated as an essay course
0.5 course offered in first term
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Many courses at Western have a significant writing component. To recognize student achievement, a number of such courses have been designated as essay courses and will be identified on the student's record (E essay full course; F/G/Z essay half-course).
A first year course that is listed by a department offering a module as a requirement for admission to the module. For admission to an Honours Specialization module or Double Major modules in an Honours Bachelor degree, at least 3.0 courses will be considered principal courses.
An introduction to the discipline of Medical Biophysics is developed through lectures on key introductory concepts and techniques used in Medical Biophysics research, real-world research seminars given by faculty members, and interactive in-class activities. Research areas include magnetic resonance imaging, molecular imaging, microvascular oxygen transport, and cancer radiation therapy.
The mechanical properties of biological structures and fluids in relation to function: deformability, strength, and visco-elasticity of hard and soft tissues, modes of loading and failure. Special topics include mechanics of synovial joints, mechanics of hearing, and mechanics of orthopedic implants and joint replacement.
The physics of blood flow and vascular mechanics in the microcirculation and large vessels, surface energy and interactions at biological interfaces such as the lung, diffusive and convective transport and exchange.
Concepts of images relevant to all imaging modalities. Image formation and capture including digital cameras and the eye, pixels, aliasing, resolution, contrast, sensitivity, specificity, ROC, window/level, dynamic range, RGB, spectroscopy. Image compression and quality, quantitative analysis based on imaging software and principles of quantitative stereology.
The role of mathematical transforms in biomedical research. Application of Fourier Transforms for imaging and image analysis. Applications of systems analysis and Laplace Transforms to model complex systems, and of linear time-invariant systems and kinetic models to analyze physiological processes.
The application of physics and mathematics for modeling oxygen transport. Emphasis on problem solving and simple MATLAB computer models for enhancing the students' interpretation of analytical solutions. Topics include the Krogh-Erlang capillary model, microvascular blood flow, oxygen diffusion in thin tissues and tumors, and finite difference models in unsteady-state systems.
An overview of the concepts and techniques used in molecular imaging research. Research areas include genetic engineering of imaging contrast, molecular probes for positron emission tomography, cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging, and optical molecular imaging of tissue dynamics.
Antirequisite(s): The former Medical Biophysics 2582B.
An introduction to the physical and biophysical principles underlying the methodology and technology for the medical uses of light including diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Specific areas will include: instrumentation which involves light detection and analysis, light spectroscopy which involves photodynamic therapy and diffuse optical tomography and optical imaging.
Intended primarily for students in Honours Specialization and Major modules in Medical Biophysics. Laboratories include topics from biomechanics (mechanical properties of arteries and bone), imaging (quantitative stereology, optical CT), biophysical analysis (diffusion and washout models), and transport systems (cardiovascular fluid dynamics). Includes an individual 6-week project in a research laboratory.
An introduction to the fundamentals of digital image processing including image representation, 2D linear systems theory and Fourier analysis, digital filtering and segmentation. Concentrates on practical techniques through an exposure to image processing applications in industry, science and medicine and assignments based on MATLAB numeric computation and visualization environments.
An introduction to linear systems and control theory as applied to organ system regulation and adaptation. Emphasis is placed on biophysical models of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and interactions with medical devices.
Nature and effects of ionizing radiation on biomolecular structures, living cells and tissues. Genetic effects and methods of radiation protection. Radiobiological implications of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation.
Physical principles underlying medical imaging. Modalities covered: x-rays, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, ultra-sound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Topics include signal generation, detection and the associated mathematics to produce medically useful images, and factors affecting resolution and sensitivity.
The role of diagnostic imaging in detecting molecules, genes, and cells in vivo. The emphasis is on how these techniques assist in studying molecular mechanisms of disease in vivo. Topics include DNA/protein synthesis, transgenic mice, novel contrast agents and small animal imaging.
Biophysics related to blood flow: Biomechanical properties of blood, heart, arteries, and veins; pressure, flow, and Poiseulle's law; optimality principles; fluid flow conservation laws and their mathematical description; pulsatile flow in rigid vessels; wave propagation in elastic vessels; structure and blood rheology of the microcirculation; oxygen delivery and flow regulation.
Case studies will highlight specific issues that medical biophysics covers while introducing important concepts and the multidisciplinary nature of research, professionals, and applications in the field. The key themes are cardiovascular and circulatory health, molecular and cellular imaging for research, diagnostic imaging in humans, cancer radiotherapy, and medical images processing.
Prerequisite(s): Registration in Year 4 of an Honours degree that contains a module offered by the Department of Medical Biophysics or, with special permission, registration in Year 4 of a BESc degree or an Honours BHSc, BMSc or BSc degree.
Theory, instrumentation, and application of biophotonics in pre-clinical and medical research, and clinical applications for the study of human cancers, musculoskeletal conditions, and cardiovascular diseases. Specific themes include instrumentation for light generation, transmission, and detection; optical spectroscopy and imaging of blood flow and metabolism; functional activation.
Prerequisite(s): One of Medical Biophysics 3645A/B or Physics 3380A/B; and registration in Year 4 of an Honours degree that contains a module offered by the Department of Medical Biophysics or, with special permission, registration in Year 4 of a BESc degree or an Honours BHSc, BMSc or BSc degree.
This course will present the major modalities of medical imaging (e.g., MR, PET, CT, etc.) from a conceptual perspective. Clinical correlate lectures will be used as follow ups to provide applications to real world pathological conditions and to understanding the benefits of those modalities for guiding clinical diagnosis and improving health outcomes.
This course focuses on various modern molecular genetic research approaches, model systems, experimental designs, and analytical methods used to identify disease biomarkers and their use in precision medicine for improved health outcomes. Examples will be taken from cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and latest biomarker/precision medicine-related outcomes.
Major laboratory course in experimental biophysics for Honours Specialization modules offered by the Department of Medical Biophysics. Three components are: a major experimental project (topic and advisor chosen in consultation with the student), scientific communication (student presentation and reports), and electronic information processing (data capture, computer analysis of biophysical signals).
Prerequisite(s):Medical Biophysics 3970Z and registration in Year 4 of one of the following Honours Specialization modules: Medical Biophysics (Medical Science Concentration), Medical Biophysics (Physical Science Concentration), or Medical Biophysics (Biological Science Concentration); or registration in Year 4 of an Honours Specialization in Medical Biophysics and Biochemistry plus either Medical Biophysics 3970Z or Biochemistry 3380G.
Major laboratory course in experimental biophysics for fourth-year Honours Specialization Medical Biophysics (Clinical Physics Concentration). The three components are: a major experimental project related to Clinical Physics (topic and advisor chosen in consultation with the student), scientific communication (student presentation and reports), and electronic information processing (data capture, computer analysis of biophysical signals).