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Academic Calendar 2015 UNDERGRADUATE COURSE INFORMATION Biology (S)
INTRODUCTION
UNDERGRADUATE SESSIONAL DATES
STUDENT SERVICES
ACADEMIC INFORMATION
STUDENT FINANCIAL SERVICES
FACULTIES
UNDERGRADUATE COURSE INFORMATION
FACULTY MEMBERS
AFFILIATED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES
GLOSSARY
NEW MODULES/PROGRAMS
FIRST YEAR UPDATES
TABLE OF CONTENTS




Biology (S)
Biology 1001A - Biology for Science I
The principles of biology taught using an integrative, question-based approach. Topics include inheritance, evolution and ecology. This course is intended for students registered in the Faculty of Science.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 1201A, Biology 1225, or the former Biology 1222, 1223
Prerequisite(s): Grade 12U (SB14U) Biology or Grade 11U (SB13UA) Biology and permission of the Department. A minimum mark of 80% in Grade 12 U Biology (SB14U) is recommended for students registered in a faculty other than the Faculty of Science.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/tutorial hours. 0.5 course.
Note: The combination of Biology 1001A and 1002B (with appropriate marks) are the prerequisites for senior Biology courses and admission to modules offered by the Department of Biology and the Basic Medical Science Departments.
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Biology 1002B - Biology for Science II
The principles of biology taught using an integrative, question-based approach. This course is primarily intended for students enrolled in the Faculty of Science. Topics include enzyme structure/function, membrane structure/function, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, respiration, molecular genetics.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 1202B, Biology 1225, or the former Biology 1222, 1223.
Prerequisite(s): Grade 12U (SB14U) Biology or Grade 11U (SB13UA) Biology and permission of the   Department. A minimum mark of 80% in Grade 12U Biology (SB14U) is recommended for students registered in a faculty other than the Faculty of Science.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/tutorial hours. 0.5 course.
Note: The combination of Biology 1001A and 1002B (with appropriate marks) are the prerequisites for senior Biology courses and admission to modules offered by the Department of Biology and the Basic Medical Science departments.
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Biology 1201A - General Biology I
This course provides an understanding of fundamental biological concepts with emphasis on function in and relevance to humans. Topics include inheritance, evolution, ecology, behaviour, ecosystem health. This course is not available to students enrolled in the Faculty of Science (students registered in the Faculty of Science should select Biology 1001A).
Antirequisite(s): Biology 1001A, Biology 1225, or the former Biology 1222, 1223.
Prerequisite(s): Grade 12U (SB14U) Biology or Grade 11U (SB13UA) Biology and permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/tutorial hours. 0.5 course.
Note: The combination of Biology 1201A and 1202B (with the appropriate marks) can be a prerequisite for senior Biology courses and admission to modules offered by the Department of Biology and the Basic Medical Science departments.
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Biology 1202B - General Biology II
This course provides an understanding of fundamental biological concepts with emphasis on function in and relevance to humans. Topics include molecular genetics, physiology, bioenergetics. This course is not available to students enrolled in the Faculty of Science (students registered in the Faculty of Science should select Biology 1002B).
Antirequisite(s): Biology 1002B, Biology 1225, or the former Biology 1222, 1223.
Prerequisite(s): Grade 12U (SB14U) Biology or Grade 11U (SB13UA) Biology and permission of the   Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/tutorial hours. 0.5 course.
Note: The combination of Biology 1201A and 1202B (with appropriate marks) can be a prerequisite for senior Biology courses and admission to modules offered by the Department of Biology and the Basic Medical Science departments.
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Biology 1225 - An Introduction to the Biology of Organisms
A study of the whole organism with emphasis on organization, growth, development, integration, reproduction and heredity.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 1001A, 1002B, 1201A, 1202B, the former Biology 1222, 1223.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 1.0 course.
Biology 1225 is not intended to serve as a prerequisite for other Biology courses and will not fulfill the requirements for entry into the Biology modules.
Offered only by Distance Studies.
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Biology 1229A/B - Biology: The Secrets of Life
This course will provide a broad background of the history and main areas of biology, before embarking on a series of case studies and guest lectures including life in extreme environments, Antarctica, invasive species and extinctions.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 1001A, 1002B, 1201A, 1202B
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 1290B - Biology and Microorganisms
The fundamental principles of biology with emphasis on cell function and the role of microorganisms in public health, sanitation, food, and nutrition. Restricted to Food and Nutrition modules or by permission of the Department of Biology.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Grade 12U (SBI4U) Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
Note: May not be taken for credit by students registered in any modules offered by either the Faculty of Science or the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry.
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Biology 2001A/B - Genetics in Everyday Life
This course will promote awareness of how genetic principles and technologies underlie such aspects of daily life as ageing, reproductive technologies, environmental mutagenesis, molecular genealogy, companion animal breeding, emerging diseases, endangered species, genetic discrimination (eugenics), genetic engineering and forensics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
Note: May not be taken for credit by students registered in any module offered by either the Faculty of Science or the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry.
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Biology 2217B - Plants as a Human Resource
An introduction to economically important plants and their products, especially as sources of food, fuel, drugs and industrial raw materials. National and international programs relating to food and other plant resources.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 1001A or 1201A and either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or either of the former Biology 1222 or 1223; or registration in Foods and Nutrition modules.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 2241Z - Biology of Invertebrates
An introduction to the invertebrate phyla, their relationships and evolution. Online material, linked to an evolutionary tree framework, introduces the morphology and major divisions of the invertebrate phyla. Examples of physiological and behavioural adaptations of selected animals link morphology and evolution to the endless variety and fascination of the living world.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 2240F/G.
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 1001A or 1201A and either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or either of the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 0.5 course. 3 hours online plus readings and assignments every 2 weeks.
Only offered on-line (see Distance Studies) - requires high speed access to the internet.
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Biology 2244A/B - Analysis & Intrepretation of Biological Data
Measurement, sampling, estimation, and statistical hypothesis testing are considered: theory, intuitive background, and practical relevance will be stressed.
Antirequisite(s): All other university level statistics courses including Statistical Sciences 2035, 2037A/B, 2141A/B, the former 2122A/B, Psychology 2810. Statistical Sciences 1024A/B is not an antirequisite.
Prerequisite(s): 1.0 Mathematics course or equivalent numbered 1000 or above.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
This half course may be used to meet the statistics requirement in the B.Sc. Biology modules. It may NOT be used in any degree as a 2000-level half course in Biology with a laboratory component.
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Biology 2290F/G - Scientific Method in Biology
A laboratory course designed to promote understanding of the scientific method by acquainting students with selected technical and conceptual tools that will enable them to generate, analyze and communicate data from experimental investigations of their own design in the areas of cell biology, population biology and genetics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1001A or 1201A and a minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or a minimum mark of 60% in either the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 6 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
Mandatory course in most modules offered by the Department of Biology.
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Biology 2382B - Cell Biology
Molecular and structural organization of cells in relation to function. Composition and dynamics of the plasma membrane and membrane-bound compartments in cells. Synthesis and trafficking of proteins. Cytoskeleton and cell motility. Membrane receptors in signal and energy transduction, cell-cell adhesion and recognition. Excitable membranes.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1001A or 1201A and a minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or a minimum mark of 60% in either the former Biology 1222 or 1223; Chemistry 1100A/B and 1200B, or the former Chemistry 1050.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
Mandatory course in most modules offered by the Department of Biology.
Note: It is strongly recommended that Biochemistry 2280A be taken prior to this half course.
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Biology 2404A - Changing Plant Communities of Ontario
A study of the natural flora of Ontario, with emphasis on southwest Ontario. The course will deal with plants and their distribution pattern as affected by past and modern climates and technological change. Some field work included.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 1001A or 1201A and either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or either of the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 5 lecture/laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
Offered in alternate years.
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Biology 2471A/B - Vertebrate Biology
The biology of vertebrates including evolution and structural adaptation in a variety of vertebrates. Emphasis will be on features of animal biology unique to the vertebrates.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in Biology 1001A or 1201A and Biology 1002B or 1202B or the former Biology 1222, 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 2483A - Ecology
An introduction to ecology, the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Ecological concepts at the organism, population and ecosystem levels will be considered, including tolerance limits, life history evolution, competition, predation, population growth and control, and ecosystem dynamics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1001A or 1201A and a minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or a minimum mark of 60% in either the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
Mandatory course in most modules offered by the Department of Biology.
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Biology 2485B - Environmental Biology
Basic principles of environmental biology, human ecology, ecosystem structure and function. Human population growth and its impact on soil, water, energy, agriculture and natural populations of plants and animals. Environmental problems created by resource exploitation and possible solutions.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 1001A or 1201A and either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or either of the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 2581B - Genetics
The structure, transmission and expression of genetic elements in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and populations.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1001A or 1201A and a minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or a minimum mark of 60% in either the former Biology 1222 or 1223; Biochemistry 2280A.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
Mandatory course in most modules offered by the Department of Biology.   
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Biology 2601A/B - Organismal Physiology
This course provides a general background in the mechanisms and consequences of physiological processes in plants and animals. It will take an integrated approach and include a comparative context, wherever possible. It will include hands-on laboratory work with both plants and animals.
Antirequisite(s): The former Biology 2660A/B, 2672A/B.
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1001A or 1201A and a minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or a minimum mark of 60% in the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. 0.5 course.
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Biology 3218F/G - Biology of the Fungi
This course provides an introduction to the fungi with emphasis on their biology, ecology, genetics and interactions with other organisms, including humans and their crops. Emphasis is on the true fungi, including yeasts, with brief treatment of other fungus-like microbes of the Kingdoms Chromalveolata and Amoebozoa.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): At least 1.0 course in Biology at the 2200-level or higher.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3220Z - Field Studies in Biology
Specialized field courses given by biologists from Ontario universities at various times during the year. Students should be prepared to meet travel and living expenses.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department of Biology. See the departmental office in January of each year for list of offerings, requirements, and credits. This course may be used as a half laboratory course.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Sessions and hours by arrangement, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3222F/G - Selected Topics
Selected topics of current interest in Biology. The topics may vary each year. Specific topics will be available from the Department prior to registration.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in Biology 1001A or 1201A and Biology 1002B or 1202B or the former Biology 1222, 1223 and at least one half course in Biology at the 2200 level or above, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours. 1 tutorial/lecture hour. 0.5 course.
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Biology 3224F/G - Selected Topics
Selected topics of current interest in Biology. The topics may vary each year. Specific topics will be available from the Department prior to registration.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in Biology 1001A or 1201A and Biology 1002B or 1202B or the former Biology 1222, 1223 and at least one half course in Biology at the 2200 level or above, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 0.5 course.
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Biology 3229F/G - Animal Diversity: Ancestral Vertebrates to Jellyfish
An introduction to animal phyla focused on understanding the diversity of body plans across the animal kingdom. Characteristics defining major animal groups, and key evolutionary designs and innovations are discussed in relation to ecology and life habits.  Both extant, and some fossil, forms will be considered to illustrate animal evolution.
Antirequisite(s): The former Biology 2240F/G, 2241Z.
Prerequisite(s): At least 1.0 course from:  Biology 2290F/G, 2382B, 2483A, 2581B, 2601A/B and registration in third or fourth year.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3316A/B - Advanced Cell Biology
The functional organization and physiology of cells with special reference to cellular membranes, energetics, cell motility, cell specializations, and cell-cell interactions. The course is based on the interpretation of experimental observations.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; Biology 2382B
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 demonstration/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3326F/G - Cell Biology Laboratory
Training in current cell biological methods such as tissue culture, cell fractionation, computer-assisted microscopic analysis and immunocytochemistry.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; a minimum mark of 70% in Biology 2382B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 5 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
(Enrolment may be limited.)
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Biology 3332A - Parasitology
Parasitism as a way of life; structures and life histories of selected parasites with emphasis on species affecting humans. The relationships between host and parasite will be stressed in lectures, recognition and identification in the laboratory. Living material will be studied when available.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A, Biology 2382B, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3338A - Developmental Biology
Principles underlying the molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms by which an organism develops. Classic and contemporary perspectives in embryology and development.
Antirequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3355A/B - Molecular Cell Biology of Stress
This course will cover a range of environmental, physiological, and pathological stresses common to animal systems. The focus will be on evolutionary conserved cell stress responses, individual signaling pathways and the molecules controlling the action of specific stress stimuli.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2382B
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour, 0.5 course
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Biology 3404F/G - Evolution of Plants
This course provides an introduction to the major groups of photosynthetic organisms - now classified in three Domains and numerous Kingdoms. These organisms feed the world, produce many of today's medicines, and provide numerous ecosystem functions. Lectures emphasize diversity, evolutionary relationships and importance, and labs emphasize morphology and recognition.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1001A or 1201A and a minimum mark of 60% in either Biology 1002B or 1202B, or a minimum mark of 60% in either the former Biology 1222 or 1223.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
Offered in alternate years.
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Biology 3435F/G - Animal Ecology
The life history consequences of behavioral, physiological, and morphological adaptations. Ecological aspects of reproduction and growth. Energetics and the use of physiological indices in ecological studies.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 2483A or 2486A.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3436F/G - Animal Behaviour
Introduction to the science of animal behavior with emphasis on the evolution and adaptive nature of behavior. A comparative experimental approach is used to illustrate topics such as the development, control, and organization of behavior, foraging, predation, mate choice, mating systems, parental care, communication, and social behavior.
Antirequisite(s): Psychology 3221F/G
Prerequisite(s): A half or full course equivalent statistics course chosen from: Biology 2244A/B (or equivalent courses: Statistical Sciences 2035, 2141A/B, 2244A/B, the former 2122A/B, Psychology 2810). Note: Statistical Sciences 2037A/B is not acceptable.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s): Biology 2483A, 2486A is recommended.
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3440A/B - Ecology of Populations
Knowing how many individuals of a given species there are and identifying the factors that cause population numbers to change is fundamental for conservation, fisheries, forestry, and managing everything from pest insects to pandas. This course combines the central tenets of population ecology with hands-on techniques for its practical application.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A; One of Biology 2244A/B, Psychology 2810, Statistical Sciences 2244A/B, or the former Statistical Sciences 2122A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3.0 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3442F/G - Conservation Biology
This course introduces fundamental concepts and issues in conservation biology. We explore the three prongs of conservation including: (1) the science involved in conserving biodiversity; (2) the political systems that directly affect conservation; (3) how to access the political system to maximize the probability of implementing conservation programs.

Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A. Biology 2486A is recommended.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3444F/G - Molecular Ecology
An introduction to the use of molecular tools in addressing both basic and applied questions in ecological research, including population, behavioural, community and ecosystem ecology. Lectures and student-led seminars develop basic knowledge and theory underlying molecular ecology, and present many recent case studies from the primary literature.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A, 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lectures hours, 1 tutorial/lecture hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3445F - Community Ecology
An integrative approach to ecology, stressing the structure and function of communities. Theoretical explanations for diversity, stability and productivity across a variety of community types are evaluated in light of empirical evidence.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3446B - Wildlife Ecology and Management
The application of ecological principles to the management of wildlife species. Topics include techniques, harvest, predation, habitat loss and management, stocking and reintroductions, and economics of wildlife. Identification and biology of game, pest and furbearing species in laboratories; films are used frequently.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3466B - Evolutionary Genetics
The study of evolution in large and small random and non-random mating populations, showing discrete and quantitative inheritance. The roles and importance of mutation, inbreeding, drift, selection and linkage.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): One of Biology 2244A/B, Statistical Sciences 2035, 2141A/B, 2244A/B, the former 2122A/B, Psychology 2810; Biology 2581B; or permission of the Department. Biology 2486A is recommended.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3467A/B - Evolution and Reproduction
Evolutionary concepts taught using the framework of reproduction. Topics include evolution of various forms of reproduction, sex, the cost and consequences of different mating systems, sexual antagonism, egg-sperm co-evolution, reproductive isolation between species. Current understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionary aspects of reproduction will also be discussed.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum of 60% in Biology 2581B
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial/lecture, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3475A/B - Chemical Ecology
This course will examine how plants and animals use chemical cues to find essential resources, defend against natural enemies, locate suitable mates, and maintain social systems. How chemical ecology may be used to elucidate basic ecological problems and to provide more environmentally friendly pest management practices will also be discussed.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A, Chemistry 1100A/B and 1200B or the former Chemistry 1050.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3484A/B - Patterns in the Diversity of Life
This course considers the large-scale patterns in the Earth's biota: patterns in life's diversification and extinction, changing the biota through time; patterns in the form and functioning of organisms, reflected in biological classification; patterns in the global distribution of life's lineages, and in their major responses to Earth's diverse climate.
Antirequisite(s): The former Biology 2484A.
Prerequisite(s): At least 1.0 course from: Biology 2290F/G, 2382B, 2483A, 2581B, 2601A/B and registration in third or fourth year.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3592A - Principles of Human Genetics
Genetic principles and their application to humans. Special attention will be directed to the genetic variation in our species, mutations, mechanisms of gene expression, and mapping the human genome.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A;Biology 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3593B - Genetic Engineering
An accounting of the principles in genetics that have led to advances in animal and plant breeding earlier in this century; recombinant DNA and other technologies employed in contemporary biotechnology; and the basis for continued progress in genetic engineering.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; Biology 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3594A - DNA: Genome Organization, Mutagenesis and Repair
This course will cover concepts related to DNA organization, replication, mutagenesis and repair in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Lecture topics will include current literature in DNA mutagenesis and repair designed to permit direct examination of concepts, experimental design, methodology, data analysis and future trends.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; Biology 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3595A - Advanced Genetics
This course will use examples from diverse biological systems to expand basic genetic principles such as mutation, recombination, gene and genome evolution, complex inheritance and functional genomics. Current research information will be used to inform discussion of the implication and applications of these topics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of 70% in Biology 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3596A/B - Genomics and Beyond: A Laboratory Course
A practical introduction to modern experimental approaches in genetics and molecular biology as applied to such topics as genomics (gene identification and classification), functional genomics (genome expression profiles) and bioinformatics (computational genomic analysis).
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 70% in each of Biology 2290F/G and Biology 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture/tutorial hours, 4 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3597A/B - Regulation of Gene Expression
A discussion of the genetic material and molecular mechanisms governing its expression in a variety of organisms.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; Biology 2581B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3598A/B - Behavioural Genetics
The roles of genes and genetic variation in the evolution and expression of animal behaviour are examined. Major themes include the population genetics and quantitative genetics of behaviour, the molecular biology of gene discovery, and the evolution of behavioural traits, including social traits, as studied through vertebrate and invertebrate model systems.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2581B
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 2 tutorial hours, 0.5 course
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Biology 3601A/B - Animal Physiology I
This course will examine the form and function of physiological and biochemical systems in the vast diversity of non-human animals. It will emphasize the importance of phylogeny and environmental selective pressures on the evolution of these systems.
Antirequisite(s): The former Biology 3651A/B.
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in Biology 2601A/B or the former Biology 2672A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lectures hours, 2 tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3602A/B - Animal Physiology II 
This course explores the mechanisms, integration and evolution of physiological and biochemical systems within animals. By using a comparative approach, we will explore the diversity of evolutionary “strategies” adopted by phylogenetically distinct animals. Animals thriving in extreme environments will be featured. Human physiology will be discussed only briefly.
Antirequisite(s): The former Biology 3651A/B.
Prerequisite(s):
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s): A minimum mark of 60% in Biology 2601A/B or Physiology 3120.
Extra Information: 3 lectures hours, 2 tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3603A/B - Ecophysiology of Plants
This course introduces students to the physiological responses of plants to their environment. Specific topics covered include water balance, mineral nutrition, phytohormones, plant defenses and environmental stress. The material covered provides valuable background information for students planning to take further courses in either plant physiology or plant ecology.
Antirequisite(s): The former Biology 2660A/B.
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2601A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lectures hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3625F/G - Techniques in Physiology & Biochemistry
Training in current techniques used in physiology and biochemistry. Emphasis is placed on the functional integration of systems from the molecules to the whole organism level and the assignment of function to genes. Techniques include chromatography, electrophoresis, protein and nucleic acid blotting, enzyme assays and whole organism or organelle measurements.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; Biology 2382B; one of Biology 2601A/B, Physiology 3120 or 3140A, or one of the former Biology 2660A/B or 2672A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 1 lecture/tutorial hour, 5 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 3660A/B - Advanced Plant Physiology
Physiology and biochemistry of plants with emphasis on primary plant metabolism, including: photosynthesis, respiration, photorespiration, and nutrient assimilation. Other topics include plant-soil relationships, herbicides, phytoremediation, photomorphogenesis, medicinal plants, plant products and alternative fuels.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2601A/B or the former Biology 2660A/B, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4200A/B - Selected Topics in Biology
Taught at an advanced undergraduate level. The specific topics taught may vary each year. Consult the Department of Biology for information about the current offering.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000 level or above and registration in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered by the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 1 tutorial/lecture hour, 0.5 course
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Biology 4218A - Microorganisms & Plant Disease
Plant diseases caused by abiotic and biotic factors with emphasis on effects of important pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi. Relationships between host, pathogen and environmental factors, epidemiology and methods of control.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3218F/G, or permission of the Department.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4223F/G - Marine Environments
The ecological and physiological challenges posed to animal communities of marine (including intertidal, benthic, planktonic, coral reef and deep-sea) environments. Topics include: feeding, movement, defence, developmental and life cycle strategies of animals in these environments. Invertebrate examples dominate discussion but a previous course in invertebrate zoology is not a prerequisite.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000 level or above.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4230A/B - Ecosystem Health
A characterization of ecosystems, contaminants, and the human health concerns. Course material will cover the production, transport, transformation and fate of environmental contaminants, with an emphasis on their anthropogenic impacts. Emphasis will include the assessment of human health exposure and biomarkers of environmentally associated disease.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A or permission of the instructor or registration in year 4 or an Honors Specialization offered by the Department of Biology, Enviromental Science or the Basic Medical Sciences Department or a Major in Ecosystem Health.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4243G - Political Biology
The biological consequences of human activities for the biotic world and particularly human beings and their institutions. Direct physical and chemical effects upon metabolism, development, adaptation, genes, and population structure. Indirect effects through climatic change, population density, social conditions and changed patterns of survival. Predictions and mechanisms for influencing the future.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biochemistry 2280A; Biology 2382B; Biology 2483A; and completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000 level or above.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4257Z - Field Studies in Biology
Specialized field courses given by biologists from Ontario universities at various times during the year. Students should be prepared to meet travel and living expenses.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department. See the Department of Biology office in January each year for list of offerings, requirements, and credits. This may be used as a half laboratory course.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Sessions and hours by arrangement, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4258Z - Field Studies in Biology
Specialized field courses given by biologists from Ontario universities at various times during the year. Students should be prepared to meet travel and living expenses.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department. See the Department of Biology office in January each year for list of offerings, requirements, and credits. This may be used as a half laboratory course.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Sessions and hours by arrangement, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4259F/G - Research Hypothesis Testing
This course will equip students with some of the basics of experimental design and statistical analysis useful for understanding, conducting and presenting biological research. The emphasis is on practical application rather than theory, and on problems of particular concern in biological studies.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2244A/B or one of Statistical Sciences 2035, 2141A/B, 2244A/B, the former 2122A/B, or Psychology 2810; and completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000-level or above.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4289A/B - Biosystematics and Phyologenetics
An overview of modern approaches to the classification and identification of living organisms, dealing with such topics as molecular evolution, the theory of biological systematics, phylogenetics, DNA fingerprinting, the Tree of Life and Barcoding projects, and bioinformatics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2581B and completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000 level or above.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 2 tutorial hour, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4300F/G - Selected Topics in Cell Biology
Topics will focus on current areas in cell biology and may vary each year. Prior to registration, check with the Department of Biology for specific topics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3316A/B, Biology 3338A, and completion of at least one additional half course in Biology course at the 3000-level or above; and registration in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered by the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lectures hours per week, 0.5 course
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Biology 4338G - Advanced Developmental Biology
An analysis of specific topics in the embryology and development of model organisms. The course will focus primarily on genetic and biochemical pathways which have been conserved between distantly related organisms.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of 75% in Biology 3338A.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/ tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4355F/G - The Biology of Aging: Cellular and Molecular Aspects
Aging is an extremely complex multifactoral process governed by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This course will explore current topics including: model organisms to study aging, identification of “aging genes”, longevity variation among different species, signalling pathways and the role of reactive oxygen species in aging and age-associated diseases.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3316A/B and enrolment in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered through the Department of Biology or the Basic Medical Science departments.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Completion of one of the following courses is recommended: Biology 3338A, 3592A, 3595A, 3597A/B.
2 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4405F/G - Ecosystem Ecology
This course traces the flow of water, energy, and nutrients from their abiotic origins, to their cycles through microbes, plants, and animals. This course will synthesize current advances in ecology with established theory to offer a comprehensive survey of ecosystem pattern and process.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2483A.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. 0.5 course.
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Biology 4420A/B - Insect Biology: From Morphology to Ecology
An introduction to external and internal insect anatomy and fundamentals of insect physiology. The course will also examine how variations in morphological and physiological traits allow insects to exploit diverse habitats worldwide. The laboratory component will focus on the characteristics of major insect orders and families.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3484A/B.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4436F/G - Behavioural Ecology
A study of the relationships between animal behavior, ecology and evolution. Topics include: behavioral genetics and learning; mating systems, reproductive strategies and parental investment; foraging behavior, predation and competition; social groups and communication.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3436F/G or Psychology 3221F/G and either completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses from the 3000 level or above, or registration in year 4 of the Honors Specialization in Animal Behaviour.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/seminar hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4441F/G - Special Topics in Evolution
A critical examination of topics in evolutionary biology such as levels of selection, speciation, patterns of diversification, origin and radiation of selected groups, biogeography, and taxonomy and phylogeny.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2486A; and either completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses from the 3000-level or above, or registration in Year 4 of the Honors Specialization in Animal Behaviour; or special permission from the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory/discussion hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4510F/G - Selected Topics in Genetics
Topics will focus on current areas in Genetics and may vary each year. Prior to registration, check with the Department for specific topics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): 1.0 Biology course at the 3500-level and completion of at least one additional half course in Biology at the 3000-level or above; and registration in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered by the Department of Biology.   
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lectures hours per week, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4540G - Developmental Genetics
A comparative analysis of genetics principles underlying axial patterning, sex determination, epigenetic phenomena and other developmental pathways in a select group of model organisms.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 3338A or permission of the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4560B - Human Molecular Genetics
This course will offer an up-to-date examination of the current status of human genetics with emphasis on the molecular information. The specific course content is expected to change from year to year reflecting research progress, including the human genome project.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3592A and 3596A/B; one additional 0.5 course in Biology at the 3000 level or above; and registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered through the Department of Biology or a Major in Genetics.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4561F - Genes & Genomes l
An examination of the current concepts of organization, transmission and expression of eukaryotic genes in the context of the chromosome. Topics to be covered include chromatin organization and composition, genomic rearrangements, techniques for mapping genes and manipulating genomes.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3596A/B; and one of the following: Biology 3594A, 3595A, 3597A/B; and one additional 0.5 course in Biology at the 3000 level or above; and registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization module or a Major in Genetics offered through the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4562B - Genes & Genomes ll
An examination of our understanding of the organization, structure and function of the genes and genomes of plants, emphasizing recent developments in plant molecular genetics involving model organisms. Topics include plant gene expression, mapping of plant genes, molecular tools for DNA transfer, the interrelationship of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000 level or above; and registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization module or a Major in Genetics offered through the Department of Biology; or permission of the instructor.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 2 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4582 - Investigative Techniques in Genetics
A study of the techniques currently used in the various disciplines of genetics.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): A minimum mark of 70% in each of Biology 3596A/B and 1.0 course from: Biology 3466B, 3592A, 3593B, 3594A, 3595A, 3597A/B; and registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization in Genetics or permission of the Genetics Undergraduate Coordinator.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 4 laboratory hours, 1.0 course.
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Biology 4608G - Environmental Plant Physiology
The impact of environment on plant function and adaptation. Topics include the radiation environment, use of radiation to sense environmental change, carbon metabolism and productivity, inorganic nutrients and the rhizosphere, responses to environmental stress (water, temperature, radiation and aerial pollution).
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Biology 2601A/B or the former Biology 2660A/B; registration in a Biology module and completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000-level or above. Biology 3660A/B is recommended.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4611F/G - Physiology of Animal Migration
The study of animal migration, focusing on migration as a life history trait, integrating physiology and biochemistry with ecological and evolutionary processes.
Antirequisite(s):
Prerequisite(s): Either Biology 2601A/B or Physiology 3120, or the former Biology 2672A/B, or permission of the Department; and either completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses from the 3000-level or above, or registration in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization in Animal Behaviour.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4920F/G - Seminar in Biology
Current research in biology critically reviewed and discussed through a combination of student presentations and written assignments.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4930F/G, 4931F/G, 4944F/G, 4950F/G, or the former Biology 4932F/G, 4941E, 4946E, 4943G.
Prerequisite(s): Completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000 level or above and registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered through the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 seminar/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4930F/G - Seminar in Cell Biology
Current research in cell biology critically reviewed and discussed through a combination of student presentations and written assignments.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4920F/G, 4931F/G, 4944F/G, 4950F/G or the former Biology 4932F/G, 4941E, 4943E, 4946E.
Prerequisite(s): Biology 3316A/B, 3326F/G, and an additional 0.5 course in Biology at the 3000-level or above; and registration in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered by the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 seminar/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4931F/G - Seminar in Physiology
Current research in physiology critically reviewed and discussed through a combination of student presentations and written assignments.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4920F/G, 4930F/G, 4944F/G, 4950F/G, or the former Biology 4932F/G, 4941E, 4943E, 4946E.
Prerequisite(s): One of Biology 3601A/B, 3603A/B, 3660A/B or Physiology 3120, or the former Biology 3651A/B; and completion of at least 1.0 additional Biology courses at the 3000-level or above; and registration in Year 4 or an Honors Specialization module offered by the Department of Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4944F/G - Seminar in Ecology and Evolution
Current research in ecology and evolution critically reviewed and discussed through a combination of student presentations and written assignments.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4920F/G, 4930F/G, 4931F/G, 4950F/G, or the former Biology 4932F/G, 4941E, 4943E, 4946E.
Prerequisite(s): Completion of at least 1.5 Biology courses at the 3000-level or above and registration in Year 4 of an Honors Specialization in Biology.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 lecture/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4950F/G - Seminar in Genetics
Current research in genetics critically reviewed and discussed through a combination of student presentations and written assignments.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4920F/G, 4930F/G, 4931F/G, 4944F/G, or the former Biology 4932F/G, 4941E, 4943E, 4946E.
Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of 70% in Biology 3596A/B and enrolment in year 4 of the Honors Specialization in Genetics, or permission of the Genetics Undergraduate Coordinator.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 3 seminar/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4970F/G - Independent Study in Biology
A project course in a particular field under the direction of a faculty member.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4999E, the former Biology 450F/G, 451F/G.
Prerequisite(s): Registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered by the Department of Biology or an Honors Double Major in Biology (which includes a Major in Biology). Students must have arranged a project with a supervisor before completing registration. A current listing of projects is available from the Biology Department Office. See research notice boards for areas of specialization of the faculty and fields available.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: 8 laboratory/tutorial hours, 0.5 course.
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Biology 4999E - Honors Research Thesis
A major laboratory or field project in Biology that emphasizes experimental design, instrumentation, collection and analysis of data and communication of experimental results by oral and written presentations.
Antirequisite(s): Biology 4970F/G.
Prerequisite(s): Registration in year 4 of an Honors Specialization module offered through the Department of Biology. Students must have arranged a project with a supervisor before completing registration. In the Spring see Biology notice boards for research areas of specialization of the faculty and fields available.
Corequisite(s):
Pre-or Corequisite(s):
Extra Information: Minimum 15 laboratory hours per week and during the first term an additional 2 seminar hours per week; 1.5 course.
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Academic Calendar 2015 UNDERGRADUATE COURSE INFORMATION Biology (S)
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